Current computing and user interface technologies permit increasingly direct connections between the human brain and computers. The technologies include various types of displays, such as traditional screens, smartphones, or headsets, and electrical connections from person to computer that monitor activity in the brain. These connections can be either external via electrodes on the scalp and other parts of the body, or internal via implants that connect to the brain itself. Software interprets the signals from the brain to provide feedback to the user or to take action. Examples of use include mitigating the effects of paralysis, rehabilitation from strokes, facilitating remote surgeries, controlling home or medical devices, and entertainment.
This paper provides details on the current types of virtual reality systems and the brain-computer interfaces that drive them. It goes on to describe how the various systems are used in different scenarios, as listed above. Although the title mentions smart cities, there is only a very general description of how the technologies would facilitate life in such a city. That said, the paper offers a good summary of the state of the art in this area.
More than 150 references, most with hyperlinks to the sources (in the PDF version), provide ample background for further research. One should keep in mind that this area is undergoing rapid development, especially in software, as machine learning plays an ever more important role in interpreting signals from the various bodily sensors.